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Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest

UC Davis researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
The earliest known usage of tobacco in the Pacific Northwest was smoked using a pipe similar to this one, according to Shannon Tushingham, a UC Davis archaeology research associate. Credit: Shannon Tushingham

(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.

"The study demonstrates that was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the .

Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.

Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.

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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.

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Despite the solid expansion, the yearly rate weakened to -1.4 per cent last month, from a -0.8 per cent pace in September. Economists expected production to have declined 0.9 per cent over the 12 months to October.
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Some people remain attached to a theory that can be described as resource scarcity. At its heart this theory suggests that resource development follows a linear pattern in which low-cost resources are developed first, meaning that most if not all future development must be more costly. Unfortunately the history of the industry does not support this view. If anything the experience of the past few decades suggests that the opposite is true.
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Murietta belonged to a gang known as the Five Joaquins, who were notorious bandits during the height of the California Gold Rush. While Murietta's criminal activity likely did not have any political undertones, he nonetheless became a symbol of Mexican resistance as American settlers ventured to California. Unfortunately for him, this pushed the government to put a bounty on his head, leading to his murder and beheading. Luckily, Banderas's character didn't fall to the same fate.
万分沮丧之下,他发明了可以允许自拍的东西:他称之为"伸缩杆"。因为智能手机还没发明出来,所以,连接在自拍杆末端的是一个微型相机。在杆的前端有一面小镜子,方便使用者调整他们在相机里的姿态。他在1983年为"伸缩杆"申请了专利。虽然自拍杆进行了大量生产出售,却属商业败笔——相片的质量比较差。另外,以前的研究表明,那时的女士会因自己有自拍的想法而感到尴尬。在2000年,自拍杆被韦恩·弗洛姆(Wayne Fromm)重新发明,那时,上田宏的"伸缩杆"专利期尚有三年。弗洛姆称他的自拍杆为"快捷豆荚"。他认为他才是当今自拍杆的发明者,甚至起诉其他自拍杆生产者。当被问到上田宏的自拍杆时,弗洛姆评论说它们是"先前的艺术"。
A few recent scientific papers say that such long-lasting kinks in the jet stream have become more likely because global warming is rapidly melting the sea ice in the Arctic, but many leading scientists are not convinced on that point.
声明中说:“我们真诚地向《月光男孩》剧组、《爱乐之城》剧组、沃伦?比蒂、费?唐纳薇和奥斯卡颁奖礼观众致歉,因为在宣布最佳影片环节中我们出了纰漏。”
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The study is available online.


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Citation: Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest (2013, March 1) retrieved 18 November 2020 from https://phys.org/news/2013-03-uncover-earliest-tobacco-pacific-northwest.html
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